Difference between revisions of "New to Open Access?"

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[[File:oad2.jpeg|60px]] This list is part of the [http://oad.simmons.edu Open Access Directory].
[[File:oad2.jpeg|60px]] This list is part of the [http://oad.simmons.edu Open Access Directory].
* '''This list is still under development. Every part of it may change before the official launch, including its title, URL, and method of organization.'''
* '''This is a retired list, no longer (actively) updated.'''
* If you are new to open access, welcome. We at the Open Access Directory (OAD) have gathered together a select group of resources to help the newcomer become familiar with open access. Unlike the other OAD lists, this one is curated and not intended to be exhaustive.  
* If you are new to open access, welcome. We at the Open Access Directory (OAD) have gathered together a select group of resources to help the newcomer become familiar with open access. Unlike the other OAD lists, this one is curated and not intended to be exhaustive.  
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   | __TOC__
   | __TOC__
I really envisioned this as a short page of links. Then point internally to a two or three OAD sites. If we really want to do a FAQ that is a different animal and should be titled differently.
We should just use Peter's introductory article here. "Start here" and that eliminates the need for some of the narrative. Then we can jump into the Creative Commons site.
== Defining open access ==
'''Open access (OA)''' literature is digital, online, free or charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions and focuses on OA to scholarly research and scholarship. Other content can be considered open as well (i.e. open source, open educational resources, etc.) but ?. Other freely available works, such Project Guttenberg digital books are available because the works are in the public domain (outside of copyright restrictions, usually do to age).
== Why open access? ==
Open-access literature allows research to be shared online without price and permission barriers that would limit access and use. The open access movement hopes to decrease the economic and legal barriers between scholarly research and those who want to learn from it and potentially expand upon it.
<!-- == Cost ==
Within the traditional publishing model, researchers submit articles to journals that are then reviewed by peers in their field. Once these articles are published, they can only be accessed for a fee. The cost of subscriptions to research publications can be prohibitive for individuals and even academic and public institutions. This creates an economic divide in access that limits the dissemination of research to the greater research community. -->
== Delivering open access ==
OA can be delivered in many ways, for example, through databases, ebooks, wikis, blogs, discussion forums, and P2P networks. But the two primary vehicles are journals and repositories.
*<span style="color: orange">'''Gold OA'''</span> is delivered by OA journals. These journals provide their peer-reviewed articles online at no cost from the moment of publication.
** For examples, see the [http://www.doaj.org/ Directory of Open Access Journals] (DOAJ).
*<span style="color: green">'''Green OA'''</span> is delivered by OA repositories. Repositories don't perform their own peer review, but can host and distribute works peer-reviewed elsewhere. Disciplinary repositories provide OA to research in a given field or on a given topic, while institutional repositories provide OA to research from a given institution. Works in repositories can be unpublished and unrefereed (such as drafts and preprints), published and unrefereed (such as popular articles or editorials), or both published and refereed (such as articles published in peer-reviewed journals). Access to works in repositories can be immediate or delayed, and can be gratis or libre (more below).
** For examples, see the [http://www.opendoar.org/ Directory of Open Access Repositories] (OpenDOAR) or the [http://roar.eprints.org/ Registry of Open Access Repositories] (ROAR).
== Use and reuse ==
Copyright and licensing agreements can severely restrict what can be done with scholarly literature. Even when literature can be read at no cost to users, legal limitations on reproduction and distribution can also create barriers to access. The digital environment has provided new opportunities for the dissemination of research, such as crawling articles for online indexing and encoding content as data for use by software. However, publishers often place legal restrictions on users’ ability to reformat, repurpose, and redistribute content.
* '''Gratis access''' is free of charge. But gratis works may stand under copyright and licensing restrictions. They may even stand under all-rights-reserved copyrights.
* '''Libre access''' is free of charge and free for some or all kinds of reuse. The best way to make a work libre OA is to use an open license, for example, one of the [http://creativecommons.org/ Creative Commons] licenses, and the best way to refer to a particular stripe or flavor of libre OA is to refer to the license under which it stands. Some people use the term "libre" to refer to whole spectrum of freedoms for use and reuse beyond gratis, and some use it to refer only the most-free end of that spectrum, for example, as represented by the CC-BY license or CC0 assignment. 
<!-- == Public Domain vs. Open Access ==
'''Public Domain''' refers to a work of authorship that is no longer under copyright protection or if it failed to meet the requirements for copyright protection. Works in the public domain may be used freely without the permission of the former copyright owner. [http://www.copyright.gov/help/faq/faq-definitions.html U.S. Copyright Office]
*Example:  [http://dp.la/ DPLA] (Digital Public Library of America). Many of the resources the DPLA provide are under the public domain.
== Declarations defining open access==
The following statements serve as the foundation of the international OA movement:
*[http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read Budapest Open Access Initiative], February 14, 2002 (Budapest, Hungary)
*[http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/bethesda.htm Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing], June 20, 2003 (Bethesda, Maryland, USA)
*[http://oa.mpg.de/berlin-prozess/berliner-erklarung/ Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities], October 22, 2003 (Berlin, Germany)
<!-- == Kindred openness movements ==
'''Open Source''' - Software that is freely available, along with any derived works, with few license restrictions beyond the requirement that the source code is attributed to the original author.[http://opensource.org/osd Open Souce Initiative (OSI)]
'''Open Education Resource (OER)''' - Open Education Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials freely available for everyone to use, whether you are a teacher or a learner. [http://www.oercommons.org/learn-about-the-movement. OER Commons]
'''Open Science''' - The OpenScience project is dedicated to writing and releasing free and Open Source scientific software. [http://www.openscience.org/blog/?page_id=44 The Open Science Project]
Alternative definition of open science:
Following the idea that sharing scientific knowledge early increases its practicality, researchers release data in the midst of discovery instead of waiting until final results are available and analyzed. [http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=454  The Open Science Project Blog]
'''Open Data''' - “Open data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and sharealike.” OpenDefinition.org [http://okfn.org/opendata/ Open Knowledge Foundation]
'''Open University''' - Universities with no entry requirements. Courses require tuition and can potentially be completed online. Many universities share Open University as a title, The most famous is the Open University in the United Kingdom, established in 1969.
Ashby, Alison. "Monitoring Student Retention In The Open University: Definition, Measurement, Interpretation And Action." Open Learning 19.1 (2004): 65-77.Academic Search Complete. Web. 7 Oct. 2013.
[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/6030166/The-Open-University-explained.html The Telegraph]
'''Open Courseware''' - An OpenCourseWare (OCW) is a free and open digital publication of high quality college and university‐level educational materials.  These materials are organized as courses, and often include course planning materials and evaluation tools as well as thematic content. OpenCourseWare are free and openly licensed, accessible to anyone, anytime via the internet. [http://www.ocwconsortium.org/en/aboutus/whatisocw OpenCourseWare Consortium]
'''MOOCS or Massive Open Online Courses''' - Free online courses designed for large audiences, potentially tens of thousands of participants. MOOCs share many similarities with university classes such as semester length, subject matter, and existence of assignments and exams. Most award certificates of completion and in rare cases, academic credit. Top providers are currently: [https://www.coursera.org/ Coursera], [https://www.udacity.com/ Udacity], [https://www.edx.org/ edX]. Sources: [http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeannemeister/2013/08/13/how-moocs-will-revolutionize-corporate-learning-development/  Forbes Magazine];  [http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=mooc Financial Times Lexicon]
== Further reading ==
Peter Suber, [http://bit.ly/how-oa How to make your own work open access]. An online handout, periodically updated.
Peter Suber, [http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm Open Access Overview]. An online handout, periodically updated.
Peter Suber, [http://bit.ly/oa-book ''Open Access''] (MIT Press, 2012). Available in paperback and several OA editions. The book home page includes updates and supplements.
[http://sparc.arl.org/issues/open-access Open Access] definition by the [http://sparc.arl.org/ The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)]
[http://www.plos.org/about/open-access/ Open Access] definition by the [http://www.plos.org/ Public Library of Science (PLoS)]

Latest revision as of 11:41, 31 August 2016

Oad2.jpeg This list is part of the Open Access Directory.

  • This is a retired list, no longer (actively) updated.
  • If you are new to open access, welcome. We at the Open Access Directory (OAD) have gathered together a select group of resources to help the newcomer become familiar with open access. Unlike the other OAD lists, this one is curated and not intended to be exhaustive.